Monthly Archives: October 2014

Effects of Strategy Training and Incentives on Students’ Performance, Confidence, and Calibration

“This study examined the effect of strategy instruction and incentives on performance, confidence, and calibration accuracy. Individuals (N = 107) in randomly assigned treatment groups received a multicomponent strategy instruction intervention, financial incentives for high performance, or both. The authors predicted that incentives would improve performance, while strategy instruction would improve performance, confidence, and calibration accuracy as a result of… Read more »

Four cornerstones of calibration research: Why understanding students’ judgments can improve their achievement

“The target articles make significant advances in our understanding of students’ judgments of their cognitive processes and products. In general, the advances are relative to a subset of common themes, which we call the four cornerstones of research on metacognitive judgments. We discuss how the target articles build on these cornerstones (judgment bases, judgment accuracy, judgment reliability, and control) and… Read more »

Advancing Task Involvement, Intrinsic Motivation and Metacognitive Regulation in Physical Education Classes: The Self-Check Style of Teaching Makes a Difference

In a metacognitive field study, Papaioannou, Theodosiou, Pashali, and Digeelidis (2012) found that having 6th grade students use metacognitive techniques (self-check) significantly improved several mastery oriented variables over that of a practice technique in a physical education course. For more information about the article, please see the reference below. Papaioannou, A., Theodosiou, A., Pashali, M., & Digelidis, N. (2012). Advancing… Read more »

A Mindfulness Perspective on Metacognition

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Chris Was considers the connection between mindfulness (e.g., “bringing attention to moment-to-moment experience”) and metacognitive practices (e.g., feelings of knowing, judgments about learning, judgments about knowledge). Contrary to the view that dissociates these two practices, Was argues that mindfulness is similar to a form intentional awareness involved in metacognition. While not interchangeable, metacognition and mindfulness have the potential to be mutually reinforcing.

A review of research on metacognition in science education: current and future directions

In an extremely comprehensive meta-analytic review, Zohare and Barsilai (2013) analyzed 178 studies of metacognition in science education (mainly K-12). They identified several key trends and made suggestions for future research. One of their findings was that the use of metacognitive cues was the most common metacognitive intervention for learning science content.  For more information, please see the reference below…. Read more »

“Clickers” and metacognition: A quasi-experimental comparative study about metacognitive self-regulation and use of electronic feedback devices

In this quasi-experimental study by Brady, Seli, and Rosenthal (2013), the authors demonstrated that through the use of “clickers” they could increase metacognition and exam performance. For more information please see the reference below. Brady, M., Seli, H., & Rosenthal, J. (2013). “Clickers” and metacognition: A quasi-experimental comparative study about metacognitive self-regulation and use of electronic feedback devices. Computers &… Read more »

How do students really study (and does it matter)?

In this article by Regan Gurung (2005), he investigated specific study techniques and how they correlated with academic performance (exam scores). Not surprisingly, Gurung found that effective study techniques (i.e., elaboration) were positively correlated with performance, while ineffective study techniques (i.e., listening to music) were negatively correlated withe academic performance. For the full article, see reference and hyperlink below. Gurung,… Read more »

The Motivated Strategies for Learning Questionnaire

The Motivated Strategies for Learning Questionnaire (MSLQ) was developed by Pintrich, Smith, Garcia, and McKeachie (1993). This measure has been cited in over 1600 articles and is a very well established measure of not only metacognition, but motivation. The MSLQ is split into two main scales. The Motivation Scale is comprised of the Intrinsic Goal Orientation, Extrinsic Goal Orientation, Task Value,… Read more »

The Need for Cognition Scale

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A classic personality measure of metacognition was developed by John Cacioppo and Richard Petty (1982) entitled, The Need for Cognition Scale (NCS). This is a widely used 18-item Likert scale that assesses “the tendency for an individual to engage in and enjoy thinking” (Cacioppo & Petty, 1982, p. 116). The NCS has been cited in over 3000 articles and has well… Read more »

The Memory Self-Efficacy Questionnaire

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Berry and colleagues (1989) developed the Memory Self-Efficacy Questionnaire (MSEQ). This metacognitive measure is a cross between a self-report and actual measure of metacognition. It requires respondents to rate their confidence of remembering grocery lists, phone numbers, pictures, locations, words, and digit span. Essentially, in the MSEQ, respondents are given up to 10 pictures (or grocery items), then they are… Read more »

Just-in-Time for Metacognition

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John Draeger argues that higher-order thinking and metacognition questions can be built into to pre-class assignments typically designed to gauge basic comprehension. By making these prompts a regular part of weekly assignments, instructors provide students with multiple opportunities to practice these skills. They simultaneously signal that higher-order thinking and metacognition are part of the ebb and flow of the education experience.

Teaching Perspectives Inventory (TPI): The 5 Perspectives

There are a lot of free surveys/inventories “out there” for all sorts of things, most often related to some aspect of personality. If you use them in a reflective manner, they can help you better understand yourself – your . The TPI (also free) offers a chance for you to reflect on your teaching perspectives (one aspect of metacognitive instruction). The TPI… Read more »

The Teaching Learning Group at CSUN

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Two years ago, eight faculty at California State University, Northridge, began studying how people learn as a grassroots effort to increase student success by focusing on what instructors do in the classroom. Our website shares our efforts, Five Gears for Activating Learning, as well as supporting resources and projects developed to date (e.g., documents, videos, and a yearlong Faculty Learning… Read more »

The Six Hour D… And How to Avoid It

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This great essay by Russ Dewey (1997) evolved from a handout he used to give his students. He shares some common examples of poor study strategies and explains why they are unlikely to lead to deep learning (even if they are used for 6 hours…). He then shares a simple metacognitive self-testing strategy that could be tailored for courses across the disciplines.… Read more »

Despite Good Intentions, More is Not Always Better

Lauren Scharff suggests that sometimes well-intentioned instructor guidance to help students study is not really helpful. In fact in some cases it can be harmful. She shares some results from a study at my institution that clearly show that even something as intuitively practical as doing additional homework problems in Physics may not be a good study strategy for the students who are struggling the most. See what other strategies might also be less helpful than you might initially imagine, and think about how you provide guidance for your students.

Negotiating Chaos: Metacognition in the First-Year Writing Classroom

Amy Parks claims that “If we want new college students to engage in the kind of reflective work that will help them develop transferable metacognitive skills, we need to be thoughtful about how we integrate it into the coursework.” Check out the three recommendations she shares to do so. These great suggestions would hold true in classrooms beyond those enrolling first-year students.

Comprehension Monitoring: The Role of Conditional Knowledge

Antonio Gutierrez argues that students often have metacognitive strategies, but they don’t always know when or how to apply them (conditional knowledge). As a result, students have difficulty calibrating judgments about their own comprehension. Gutierrez motivates the need for additional research on conditional knowledge in order to better understand how students monitor their own comprehension.