Category Archives: How to Measure Metacognition

The relationship between goals, metacognition, and academic success

In this article Savia Countinho investigates the relationship between mastery goals, performance goals, metacognition (using the Metacognitive Awareness Inventory), and academic success.

Metacognitive Development in Professional Educators

Stewart, Cooper and Moulding investigate adult metacognition development, specifically comparing pre-service teachers and practicing teachers. They used the Metacognitive Awareness Inventory and found that metacognition improves significantly with age and with years of teaching experience, but not with gender or level of teaching (Pre-K though post-secondary ed levels).

Blog list sortable by Author

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This SEARCHABLE TABLE shows a concise list of blog posts (date, title, author) that is sortable by author. In addition to the regular blog post contributions by our consultant / collaborators, we welcome guest blog posts on topics related to metacognition. If you are interested, please contact the site creators at Once final blog submissions are received (the site creators… Read more »

The Motivated Strategies for Learning Questionnaire

The Motivated Strategies for Learning Questionnaire (MSLQ) was developed by Pintrich, Smith, Garcia, and McKeachie (1993). This measure has been cited in over 1600 articles and is a very well established measure of not only metacognition, but motivation. The MSLQ is split into two main scales. The Motivation Scale is comprised of the Intrinsic Goal Orientation, Extrinsic Goal Orientation, Task Value,… Read more »

The Need for Cognition Scale

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A classic personality measure of metacognition was developed by John Cacioppo and Richard Petty (1982) entitled, The Need for Cognition Scale (NCS). This is a widely used 18-item Likert scale that assesses “the tendency for an individual to engage in and enjoy thinking” (Cacioppo & Petty, 1982, p. 116). The NCS has been cited in over 3000 articles and has well… Read more »

The Memory Self-Efficacy Questionnaire

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Berry and colleagues (1989) developed the Memory Self-Efficacy Questionnaire (MSEQ). This metacognitive measure is a cross between a self-report and actual measure of metacognition. It requires respondents to rate their confidence of remembering grocery lists, phone numbers, pictures, locations, words, and digit span. Essentially, in the MSEQ, respondents are given up to 10 pictures (or grocery items), then they are… Read more »

Assessing Metacognitive Awareness

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Constructed by Rayne Sperling and Gregory Schraw (1994), the Metacognitive Awareness Inventory (MAI) is a well established and useful assessment of metacogntion. The MAI has been used in hundreds of studies, ranging from basic to applied research. It is a 52-item inventory with two broad categories (i.e., knowledge of cognition and regulation of cognition), with several sub-categories. Schraw, G., &… Read more »

The Effects of Metacognition and Concrete Encoding Strategies on Depth of Understanding in Educational Psychology

Suzanne Schellenberg, Meiko Negishi, and Paul Eggen (2011) from the University of North Florida describe a useful method to increase the metacognition of their students. They found that when educational psychology students were taught specific encoding strategies they academically outperformed a control group in learning course material. Schellenberg, S., Negishi, M., & Eggen, P. (2011). The Effects of Metacognition and Concrete… Read more »

Webinar Slides: From ‘Student’ to ‘Informed Consumer’ of Learning

by Ed Nuhfer and Karl Wirth This very informative and useful set of webinar slides (supported by the CSU Institute for Teaching and Learning) starts with a discussion of metadisciplines, pointing out that “A realization that arises from becoming educated: every metadiscipline offers a valuable way of knowing.” Following that, the presenters discuss three types of learning (knowing, skills and reasoning), and assert that “Ideally, a curricula should help students become mindful of how to distinguish the three and how to learn all three effectively.” They present data showing that most courses in… Read more »

A Brief History of Learning Inventories

Noel Entwistle and Velda McCune (2004) catalog the evolution of learning inventories over the last fifty years. The article is particularly useful in highlighting the ways similar ideas are discussed using differing terminology. Because of the article’s scope, readers can become quickly familiar with broad trends. Entwistle, N., & McCune, V. (2004). The conceptual bases of study strategy inventories. Educational… Read more »

Integrating Metacognition Instruction in Interactive Learning Environments This thesis by Claudia Amado Gama provides a thorough overview of several models of metacognition, several metacognition assessment instruments, the design of instructional metacognitive activities, and how metacognition can be incorporated into interactive learning environments.  It then focuses on the reflection assistant model, and describes an experimental study of the implementation of Metacognitive Instruction using a Reflective Approach in… Read more »