Category Archives: Teaching Metacognition

These resources will share strategies for teaching students about metacognition and helping students develop their metacognitive skills.

The Strategy Project

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This study presents an instructional method that requires deliberate practice of self-regulated learning strategies including active reading, management of study time and achievement goals, proactive interaction with faculty, and metacognitive reflection within the context of a student-selected course. Four instructors implemented the assignment–called “The Strategy Project”–in their first-year seminar courses, and student reflection papers were analyzed for emerging themes. These themes… Read more »

The Role of Metacognitive Knowledge in Learning, Teaching, and Assessing

“Metacognitive knowledge is a new category of knowledge in the revised Taxonomy.” According to Pintrich, strategic knowledge, self-knowledge and the knowledge of tasks and their contexts are the three important types of metacognitive knowledge. Paul R. Pintrich (2002) The Role of Metacognitive Knowledge in Learning, Teaching, and Assessing, Theory Into Practice, 41:4, 219-225, DOI: 10.1207/s15430421tip4104_3 The Role of Metacognitive Knowledge… Read more »

Incorporating Metacognition in Tutoring

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In this post by by Leonard Geddes, Transforming Your Tutoring Program: How to Move Beyond Important to Being Impactful, he makes a case for training tutors so that they can help their clients become metacognitive learners. The post is largely an advertisement for a LearnWell webinar, but the idea of training tutors seems worthwhile. Saturday, February 14, 2015

Effects of Strategy Training and Incentives on Students’ Performance, Confidence, and Calibration

“This study examined the effect of strategy instruction and incentives on performance, confidence, and calibration accuracy. Individuals (N = 107) in randomly assigned treatment groups received a multicomponent strategy instruction intervention, financial incentives for high performance, or both. The authors predicted that incentives would improve performance, while strategy instruction would improve performance, confidence, and calibration accuracy as a result of… Read more »

Advancing Task Involvement, Intrinsic Motivation and Metacognitive Regulation in Physical Education Classes: The Self-Check Style of Teaching Makes a Difference

In a metacognitive field study, Papaioannou, Theodosiou, Pashali, and Digeelidis (2012) found that having 6th grade students use metacognitive techniques (self-check) significantly improved several mastery oriented variables over that of a practice technique in a physical education course. For more information about the article, please see the reference below. Papaioannou, A., Theodosiou, A., Pashali, M., & Digelidis, N. (2012). Advancing… Read more »

The Teaching Learning Group at CSUN

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Two years ago, eight faculty at California State University, Northridge, began studying how people learn as a grassroots effort to increase student success by focusing on what instructors do in the classroom. Our website shares our efforts, Five Gears for Activating Learning, as well as supporting resources and projects developed to date (e.g., documents, videos, and a yearlong Faculty Learning… Read more »

The Six Hour D… And How to Avoid It

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This great essay by Russ Dewey (1997) evolved from a handout he used to give his students. He shares some common examples of poor study strategies and explains why they are unlikely to lead to deep learning (even if they are used for 6 hours…). He then shares a simple metacognitive self-testing strategy that could be tailored for courses across the disciplines.… Read more »

Using metacognitive writing assignments to improve course performance

Mynlieff, Manogaran, St. Maurice, and Eddinger discuss the use of metacognitive writing exercises in large biology classes. Students were asked to explicitly consider why they made mistakes on exams and discuss why another answer would have been more appropriate. Students completing these assignments showed marked improvement in subsequent course assessments. Mynlieff, M., Manogaran, A. L., Maurice, M. S., & Eddinger,… Read more »

The Effects of Metacognition and Concrete Encoding Strategies on Depth of Understanding in Educational Psychology

Suzanne Schellenberg, Meiko Negishi, and Paul Eggen (2011) from the University of North Florida describe a useful method to increase the metacognition of their students. They found that when educational psychology students were taught specific encoding strategies they academically outperformed a control group in learning course material. Schellenberg, S., Negishi, M., & Eggen, P. (2011). The Effects of Metacognition and Concrete… Read more »

Changing Epistemological Beliefs in Pre-service Teacher Education Students

Joanne Brownlee, Nola Purdie, and Gillian Boulton-Lewis (2010) describe an interesting method to increase student’s epistemological beliefs using reflective journal assignments. Brownlee and colleagues found that when students engaged in these reflective practices, they had significantly improved their epistemological beliefs over that of students who did not complete these activities. Brownlee, J., Purdie, N., & Boulton-Lewis, G. (2001). Changing epistemological… Read more »

Promoting Student Metacognition

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by Kimberly D. Tanner This article starts out with two student scenarios with which many faculty will easily resonate (one student with poor and one with good learning skills), and which help make the case for the need to incorporate metacognitive development in college courses. Kimberly then shares some activities and a very comprehensive list of questions that instructors might… Read more »

Teaching Metacognition to Improve Student Learning

By: Maryellen Weimer, PhD; published in Teaching Professor Blog October 31, 2012 This blog post offers suggestions for manageable approaches to getting students started in metacognitive types of reflection. Her suggestions are modifications of some shared by Kimberly Tanner in her article on “Promoting Student Metacognition”. Maryellen also astutely points out that, “When you start asking questions about learning, I wouldn’t… Read more »

Promoting general metacognitive awareness

This informative article by Gregory Schraw begins with a distinction between knowledge of cognition and regulation of cognition (lots of great references included), continues with a a discussion of generalization and a summary of some additional research that examines the relationship between metacognition and expertise (cognitive abilities), and finishes with several strategies that instructors can use to develop both metacognitive awareness… Read more »

Teaching Metacognition to Improve Student Learning

This Faculty Focus article  by Maryellen Weimer summarizes and expands Tanner’s (2012) study on promoting student learning. She discusses metacognitive promoting strategies such as questions to ask students (e.g., How have I prepared for class today?). Please check it out ( Tanner, K. D. (2012). Promoting student metacognition. Cell Biology Education—Life Sciences Education, 11 (Summer), 113-120. Wednesday, March 19, 2014

The Learning Record

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This site by Ma. A. Syverson at the University of Texas at Austin describes and provides detailed instruction on a tool that can be used for evidenced-based assessment for learning in almost any course or program.  Evidence is systematically collected by the student to show their development across six learning dimensions: Confidence and Independence, Skills and Strategies, Knowledge and Understanding,… Read more »

Developing Reflective Approaches to Writing

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This site, hosted by Queensland University of Technology in Australia, provides many approaches to teaching and assessing reflective writing.  The front page has a nice, interactive graphic that places the activities within two dimensions: Reflection Level (Reconstructing, Reasoning, Relating, or Reporting and Responding) and Course Phase (Foundation, Intermediate, Capstone). Sunday, March 16, 2014

Five Examples of Metacognitive Teaching for Large Classes

This overview is written by Perry Samson at the
Department of Atmospheric, Oceanic and Space Sciences, University of Michigan.  He gives a brief summary of five strategies/activities, each of which includes a link to another webpage that provides more detail about why/when/how to implement the strategy.  The five strategies/activities include: us of the first exam, creation of analogies, peer instruction, challenging… Read more »

Teaching Metacognition

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This webpage is a summary, written by Carol Ormand (Geoscience Education and Research Associate, Science Education Resource Center, Carleton College), of Marsha Lovett’s presentation at the 2008 Educause Learning Initiative conference. It includes a summary of three critical steps to teaching metacognition as well as a nice overview of three types of “wrappers”, which are teaching strategies that can be… Read more »